– [Charles]: The reason that depression is
associated with increased inflammation is because there’s a subgroup of depressed
people that have elevated inflammation, and they’re different than depressed people
that don’t. This is the work of my mentor, Andy Miller,
in the last five or seven years. They’ve just been world leader showing that
if you take regular old, depressed people, he got like 250 of them and did this amazing
series of studies. People that have, there’s not a cut off,
but the people that have higher levels of inflammation and depressed, have different
functional connectivity in their brains than people that have lower levels. We showed, Andy and I showed years earlier
that they also have very different responses to immune agents than people that have lower
levels of inflammation. So I think in fact, that there’s a subgroup
of very depressed people that might benefit from a kind of a not chronic inflammation,
but a hit of inflammation. When we get around to talking about hyperthermia,
I can tell you that there’s some evidence that hyperthermia does that, exercise does
that. You know, exercise acutely activates certain
types of pathways we think about as being inflammatory. So I think in the next 10 years, what we’re
going to find out is that, in fact, the immune system is probably involved in every case
of depression, but that the pattern is going to be subtler and more complex than something
just saying that depression is associated with increased inflammation. That’s probably not going to turn out to
be true. – [Rhonda]: And with the exercise, I’ve
read now several studies where exercise is, aerobic exercise and now even strength training
exercise, how it’s almost in some cases, as potent as some of these antidepressants
that are out there in terms of treatment. And as you mentioned, you know, and this is
kind of why I was thinking of this hormetic effect, because exercise does elevate inflammatory
processes acutely and then there’s a response. Yeah, anti-inflammatory response and anti-oxidative
that, you know, is much more powerful than the initial stressor that occurred.