click the bell icon to get latest videos from Ekeeda Hello Friends in the previous Lecture we have got to look at what is sp3-hybridization and how it is been playing a vital rate the formation of certain molecules like we have did for the immediate order and so on so now based on that only that is Hybridisation be able to talk about today what is sp2 Hybridisation and what is the important role in the formation of bonding between a particular atom to that of the other end and what are the bond angles that it mean and what is the geometry so this all kind of thing would be geared when we are talking about sp2 hybridized so let us talk about so now let us understand what is sp2 Hybridisation as the definition is very much important for us to know and because of that only we would be able to give a certain examples which are formed agains hybridization or in which the end of that already involved in the formation of x2 hybrid orbitals and let us understand the definition first and we move to the examples so starting in the first one that is the process of mixing at recasting of 1s and 2p orbitals so therefore I am repeating it again 1 s and 2 P orbitals of the same atom with nearly equal energy B’s the S orbital has the P orbitals they should have nearly the same energy so that to form three new sp2 hybrid orbitals so as for three new st2 hybrid orbitals having equal energy means this sp2 hybrid orbitals it will have equal energy mean when talking about only yes and only P they will have the same energy but not equal they will have similar energy but now when they are forming sp2 hybrid orbitals they all the sp2 hybrid orbitals it will have same energy or we will say they have my maximum symmetry as well as definite orientation in space and this kind of process of mixing and recasting of such kind of orbitals so as to form you as new orbitals which are nothing but the xq2 hybrid all patterns this is bonus sp2 hybridization and it is famous you know to the end of what we have reading the expiration that efficient but in that case what the literature was mixing that is not what I saw orbital and then tops the 3p or middle but in this case it is 1 s and 2 P orbitals so this is very clear that we have data about the definition of expecting hybridization and now let’s talk about that how can this could be applying the formation of some molecule so every time I put them so we see sp2 hybridization we can take an example for that and that is basically formation of ethylene or you could say formation of a theme so this is the thing that we are going to talk about that is formation of ethylene with the help of the hydration that we have learned in our previous lectures and now let us understand out that they feel structure is basically because I did it this way but this is something that I want to talk about so you are basically there are two carbon atoms that is I will name it has carbon number K and carbon number p phii the previous one that is a while up talking about SP generation every example that we have took it was the one which was involving the central at any cost we started by the other atoms and the Allred for me that is a single one but yeah as you can see that is a formation of not only double bond but even this group is been attached if this group is been attached to that of the carbon or we could see the central atom over here so that’s the reason that it would be if it for us to concern to how to do that what we are talking about so that is in how to differentiate it carbon the brain happens B so now let us understand that how can we do this whole process was to show how the formation of Ethie big space in terms of hybridization so let us talk about the sector so in this case suppose in fact considering the target to be the central atom and we here so we know that for carbon is suppose if I’m talking about so obviously the later negotiation can be written as because carbon has an atomic number of six so that’s why I protect it as well as 2 2 s 2 and 2 P 2 this is how we can do but let me talk about the hybrid should also let me talk about so let me talk about the orbitals so since the s subshell consists of only one are pearly white piece option will consist of these three orbitals in which the s is the one which causes four phases we would see two electrons so I have just inserting two letters over here and the PR wedding of the piece of kit consists of two letters but in each orbital there will be money I don’t be so the Huntsville that we will form and this is what we have and while talking about this one then this is the one which is px already py orbital and this is the P is an orbit and let me talk about this is that this is s orbital and special specifically we could say that this is 2 s orbital this is 2 px or between 2 p.m. 2 PZ operty respectively but if you observe that carbon has a valency of 4 bits carbon has a tendency to form four bonds and in this case also suppose if you are observing this example so even the carbon is the one that is forming forwards but if according to the Venice one theory that we if you know or if we follow that room that is valence bond Theory so there are two unpaired electrons so that’s the reason that carbon should follow or cover should exhibit that these two modes but as maximum valency or is maximum we will say number of bonds but it is not there it is not the truth and the thing is carbon always forms four words at least to form a stable structure so that is the reason that obviously we have to accept this electron so this electron that we have of the arrangement of electrons that we have made the electronic configuration it is basically present in the ground state so for that what we have to do is we have to accept the electron swells even this paddle across that it it has a dispersive in the S orbital it will uncover and one of the electron will move towards this orbital and that’s the reason that the excitation of electrons are very much necessary so that’s the reason then the next step that I will follow is excitation and the next process is BC excitation so this is the main and the first process that we have dated doing this to be of hybridization that we have picked to the spreading sure of that and let us do that here so this is the already that we have and I think that we have to do is basically we have to shoot the electrons as we know that this is the electro that we have and one of the electron would be we would say decoupled or uncommon and that electron will be shifted on the peas and all right so let me indicate it with this one there is this red mark this indicates that this is the electron that has been uncovered okay so the next thing is even this tree across there have been present so I’ll keep it as it is so this is what we have more so as you can see that basically the abundance which consists of unpaired electrons are basically 1s and in this case between 3p orbitals are being present up and each of the orbital that consists of one unpaired electron but the main thing is this will not show sp3 hybrids just like that of me theme it will show first of all sp2 hybrid the reason pain is that is obviously the carbon will form a double bond with that of the other one and the reason whenever this kind of saw that does the hydrogen is mean or whenever the orbitals they get mixed with each other so so as to form a stable structure like this one this is a stable structure so obviously you can see that there is about one double bond over here so to form basically single but obviously what electron operation is needed to form another that is single bond again and what an unbelievably rare why I’m talking about the car with our senior one here one electron is we need it but whatever the carbon-carbon double bond said that is the big thing that we will talk about so performance table structure as we could see over here that is the carbon is forming single board you had also it is written for mixing aboard but here it is will form a double bond but do you the formation of double moon also we could see that there is a Forbush of single power to carbon and carbon over here when you’re talking that so many ways there are basically so as to form a single bound obviously one unpaired electrons will be needed and that is what we have discuss about previous lecture or in in the hydration of that is meeting but we have not talked about that is how the double bond is been formed with respect to that of the hybridization so this is what I am going to talk about and let me tell you that this is a as you can see over here that is a formation of single bond over here that is free carbon and hydrogen carbon and how to do here and carbon and carbon over here this will be involved with that of a like like a unpaired electron while talking about this one this is what I noted that this will play a very vital role in the formation of a PI bond and that is how we need basically three that is a hybrid orbitals and one of it will be the main reason so as to form a PI bond that is what I would say that the thing that we have with us is basically 1s already that of one PX + 1 py orbitals so now this s px and py this 3 will be the main reason so as to form a hybrid already said that is what I want to show you when one of the peas are orbital that will be that is a bet with any kind of so basically all that will be unhybridized and that won’t bond with any kind of the atom but then we talked about first about the S orbital px and PMF that is what I’m trying to say is I’m mixing basically X for buddy that of px and that of P Muhammad so this case if I would see that is so this is already that we have and one of first s PX and Bhima so now the mixing with help us in such a way that this is the one that will form sp2 hybrid orbitals so this are being involved so therefore this electron that is s px and py they will for the mix with each other they will be cast with each other and they will form bc3 SP do have development in sense that is a structure that I want to talk about here that is the structure is very much easy to understand and that is how I talk about it so that is basically because s has we know that is it is a spherical shape I’m ready go to over here is this way and without of suppose in this case I will have or be exorbitant so therefore px is what we do is basically this one so this is what px is and we have discussed about the shape of the P orbitals involved and talking about the LAN store that is P my orbitals so suppose if this is female so one as one PX n but P vas was if they mix with each other they form a new kind of a hybrid orbitals and that have a structure which is basically the structure is in this way so this kind of structure is basically this is the thing that is good form and this is formed because of the mixing and this is missing RunAs sp2 hybrid orbital even this is sp2 hybrid orbital and even this is sp2 have it already so three a new kind of orbitals that has been generated because of the mixing of photos 1 s and 1 PX and py so this is but yet we are forgetting that what is the road of this P Z electron as we these pins and electron that will be then will take part in basically the bonding or in the formation of a car with a double bond but it has no involvement in basically this hybrid so the answer is that there would be an orbital that would be in the hybrid orbital but that would be the main thing that is a hybrid orbitals that would be staying in that carbon only so let me are talking about that when make sure you about this one so this red one that I am we should over here it is not involving that of the hydration but this kind of orbital that we have is we see known as an hybrid Pizan orbit so this is and this would actually this one would be because we are talking about the sp2 hybrid orbitals and those are on the plane but mean I cannot draw this P restructuring this paper so that is the reason that this PZ our orbit and this will be basically perpendicular to the plane and where you can see that this three orbiters that is the one which I’ve made in a black color they represent the plane while talking about this PZ orbital this is actually about the plane and this and this is what you could see so that is what we will apply this thing so as to conclude that how we see the if you Monica Liesbeth for so let us come back again that badly that how it happens so since in this case we have got to know that is s is been responsible and PVA pH will be when they are exposed to four hybrid orbitals so let us draw the structure of the hybrid carbon atom that we have got over here so I’m coming back back in so I could say that is this is basically I am talking about carbon number eight so this is carbon a which I’m talking about and that has basically this all three are basically I could see it as sp2 hybrid orbitals so this all three are sp2 hybrid orbitals and similarly for if carbon is the one with that is following sp2 hybrid orbitals obviously the other carbon that it’s carbon would be always and it will also follow that is the sp2 hybrid orbitals because even that is basically that is also forming that is carbon-carbon double bond to this carbon over a so even that will have the same thing that is sp2 hybrid orbitals so I’m imagining over here but let me mention it with this blue ink so as we could understand that in different shape and this is again I’ll tell you that if this is the hybrid orbitals of the carbonyl movie this is basically about limit as sp2 hybrid already an order like this one but every as you see yeah SP hybrid orbitals so the honk is done almost but we are not yet at the end so talking about the next one that is hydrogen so hydrogen is basically responsible for having you could say s forward aligned that s already be overlapping that of this sp2 hybrid orbitals so this is the thing that I’m talking about hydrogen and obviously hydrogen has one unpaired electron and that of this will also have an unpaired electron one already written everything you again this one this is sp2 hybrid orbitals and this one basically everything is sp2 hybrid hybrid orbitals and that is what we could get we here also I tell you that this one will consist of money from over here what is drawn over here and one electron over here so no so that’s the reason that here if we could see there will be pairing of electrons over here and that is what the bond forms so similarly here also the or wrapping of takes place over here in such a way that hydrogen which has one unpaired electron that we combine with the sp2 hybrid orbital even that consists of 100 electrons so in here what we could see a mod is before okay talking about the next one that is this hydrogen against opposing hydrogen combines with this one and hydrogen consists of basically when I invite a letter by that of the sp2 hybrid orbital off that one will be also positive one and it also now the uniform upon yeah also it will be the same thing and this is how the bearing starts but now talking about this thing that is a as you know that is being discussed the differentiation with reading a sigma bonding by one in that case we have got to go then s orbital which combines with any of the p orbital it will form a sigma bond so that’s the reason that this is what it is known as sigma bond even this is sigma and now but now okay about this p orbitals now they’re what they are doing we have discussing the PI bond diffusion in PI 1 and Sigma model said in case I have also mentioned about this thing that whenever the coaxial overlapping will happen obviously the Sigma bond is formed and it is related to basically P p orbital also so this is the hybrid orbital that is sp2 hybrid orbital even this is an SP hybrid orbital but they are overlapping Co Anjali so that is the reason that the one electron that is off for the carbon a and one electron is of car but now B they both will overlap with each other this way or this orbit will be overlap each other and that is how again is Sigma Buddhist reform but this is not the final thing that I am going to talk about now the main thing that I want to talk about is you see this this unhybridized and okay and i said i’ll you know so then it will remain in the carbon atom but it won’t it won’t be in body in kind of hybridization but it won’t bond with we could say any kind of atom but it would play a very vital role in the formation of a carbons have a double bond that is the PI bond so let me read it with again so that is suppose this is what I have mentioned about that is unhide rate PZ orbital and here also there will be a hybrid because here it is the same that is but carbon over B obviously it will have also X that is unhappy said orbital so the motive the same actually so now now we are applying what we have learned in the previous lecture so these are the unhybridized already as you can see over here but what happens when they overlap with each other laterally we have discussed in the differentiation also that whenever the 2p orbitals are of you can see two in this case unhybridized and operate its suppose if they overlap with each other laterally obviously there is a formation of this pi bond so now this two hybrid orbitals they play a very vital role in the formation of a pi bond and that is how the interaction between this two will create basically PI bond and that is what I want to talk about so as we see that the o lapping if I would see in this manner that is since this is an unhappy set of it obviously it will also consist of money made on by the end of even this one consists of one electron so but the thing is the overlapping cannot be done in a pure way or in a very effective manner this overlapping is will be very much weak compared to that of the head-on collision or its eco actual collision or coefficient overlap so so that is what it will create a very weak bond and that is facing us by one so if I draw the structure of this in this manner that is carbon over a which is following basically hydrogen hydrogen over here it is a single bond with another car I tried it over here again here will be formation of that is hydrogen over here here every formation of hydrogen over here and every one it would be missing in this terminal so suppose that one of be everything will be Sigma one Sigma bond Sigma everything will be Sigma but because of the unhybridized they are overlapping so there will be a formation of pipe so this is what I was I want to talk about it somewhere it is it was different from that of the SP three hybrid orbitals are mixing of SP three hybrid orbitals that we have taken in the previous lecture but not let us talk about the geometry or orientation that is the main thing and talking about this with so this is this carbon which has a valency or which has SP to have not been sent by a business that they are they will be present in the plane while talking about this one that is this pi bond has been formed that was being present in now basically a perpendicular to the plane but we know that is not following any kind of bond with any other atom so therefore that does it plays a very vital role in obesity in changing the geometry but we read the three things that is the three sp2 hybrid orbitals that has been formed with that RS 4 so forgiving the irritation and I give you the morning so since they are present in the plane and we could say even this is the one that is been present in the plane so that is the reason that the morning and if you distribute it in a very such manner that there won’t be no repulsion or something all of you could say like symmetrical distribution then you could get to know that is the bonding electric rates is basically 120 degree here also it is creating suppose the bonding is what we need a everywhere disability yeah that is how it is for being stable structure so we have not know that any sp3 hybridised should when we are talking about with him the morning and was more than 90 or we could see like it was like 1 0 9 degree 28 minutes I talked about water it also again some very different but now it is 120 degree so especially when this carbon is showing sp2 hybrid orbital so that is what the hybrid orbitals plays a very important role does but for just giving the morning but giving the orientation and giving it but you learn specific symmetry and this is what I was talking about using the example of formation of ething so that is it that is what I wanted to talk about so thank you thanks for watching this video I hope you have understood this very very clearly and you have clear your notes so share this with the friends and yes don’t forget to subscribe because thank you so much you